Syllabus – ICSE – Class 10





Physics Syllabus


  • Chapter 1 – Force
  • Chapter 2 – Work, Energy and Power
  • Chapter 3 – Machines
  • Chapter 4 – Refraction of Light at Plane Surfaces
  • Chapter 5 – Refraction through Lens
  • Chapter 6 – Spectrum
  • Chapter 7 – Sound
  • Chapter 8 – Current Electricity
  • Chapter 9 – Electrical Power and Household Circuits
  • Chapter 10 – Electro-magnetism
  • Chapter 11 – Calorimetry
  • Chapter 12 – Radioactivity

Detailed Syllabus and Instructions for examination:

There will be one paper of two hours duration carrying 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.
Note: Unless otherwise specified, only SI Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

1. Force, Work, Power and Energy

(i) Turning forces concept; moment of a force; forces in equilibrium; centre of gravity;[discussions using simple examples and simple numerical problems].
Elementary introduction of translational and rotational motions; moment (turning effect) of a force, also called torque and its cgs and SI units; common examples – door, steering wheel, bicycle pedal, etc.; clockwise and anti-clockwise moments; conditions for a body to be in equilibrium ( translational and rotational); principle of moment and its verification using a metre rule suspended by two spring balances with slotted weights hanging from it; simple numerical problems; Centre of gravity (qualitative only) with examples of some regular bodies and irregular lamina.
(ii) Uniform circular motion.
As an example of constant speed, though acceleration (force) is present. Differences between centrifugal and centripetal force.
(iii) Work, energy, power and their relation with force.
Definition of work. W = FS cosθ; special cases of θ = 00, 900. W= mgh. Definition of energy, energy as work done. Various units of work and energy and their relation with SI units. [erg, calorie, kW h and eV]. Definition of Power, P=W/t; SI and cgs units; other units, kilowatt (kW), megawatt (MW) and gigawatt (GW); and horsepower (1hp=746W) [Simple numerical problems on work, power and energy]. 

(iv) Different types of energy (e.g., chemical energy, Mechanical energy, heat energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light energy).
Mechanical energy: potential energy U = mgh (derivation included) gravitational PE, examples; kinetic energy K= ½ mv2 (derivation included); forms of kinetic energy: translational, rotational and vibrational -only simple examples. [Numerical problems on K and U only in case of translational motion]; qualitative discussions of electrical, chemical, heat, nuclear, light and sound energy, conversion from one form to another; common examples.
(v) Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency; simple treatment of levers, pulley systems showing the utility of each type of machine.
Functions and uses of simple machines: Terms- effort E, load L, mechanical advantage MA = L/E, velocity ratio VR = VE/VL = dE / dL, input (Wi), output (Wo), efficiency (η), relation between η and MA, VR (derivation included); for all practical machines η <1; MA < VR.
Lever: principle. First, second and third class of levers; examples: MA and VR in each case. Examples of each of these classes of levers as also found in the human body.
Pulley system: single fixed, single movable, block and tackle; MA, VR and η in each case.
(vi) Principle of Conservation of energy. Statement of the principle of conservation of energy; theoretical verification that U + K = constant for a freely falling body. Application of this law to simple pendulum (qualitative only); [simple numerical problems].

2. Light

(i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism – qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water and apparent bending of sticks in water. Applications of refraction of light.
Partial reflection and refraction due to change in medium. Laws of refraction; the effect on speed (V), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f) due to refraction of light; conditions for a light ray to pass undeviated. Values of speed of light (c) in vacuum, air, water and glass; refractive index µ = c/V, V = fλ. Values of µ for common substances such as water, glass and diamond; experimental verification; refraction through glass block; lateral displacement; multiple images in thick glass plate/mirror; refraction through a glass prism, simple applications: real and apparent depth of objects in water; apparent bending of a stick under water. (Simple numerical problems and approximate ray diagrams required).
(ii) Total internal reflection: Critical angle; examples in triangular glass prisms; comparison with reflection from a plane mirror (qualitative only). Applications of total internal reflection.
Transmission of light from a denser medium (glass/water) to a rarer medium (air) at different angles of incidence; critical angle
(C) µ = 1/sin C. Essential conditions for total internal reflection. Total internal reflection in a triangular glass prism; ray diagram, different cases – angles of prism (60º,60º,60º),(60º,30º,90º), (45º,45º,90º); use of right angle prism to obtain δ = 90º and 180º (ray diagram); comparison of total internal reflection from a prism and reflection from a plane mirror.
(iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining magnification.
Types of lenses (converging and diverging), convex and concave, action of a lens as a set of prisms; technical terms; centre of curvature, radii of curvature, principal axis, foci, focal plane and focal length; detailed study of refraction of light in spherical lenses through ray diagrams; formation of images – principal rays or construction rays; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis; characteristics of images. Sign convention and direct numerical problems using the lens formula are included (derivation of formula not required).

Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required.
Power of a lens (concave and convex) – [simple direct numerical problems]: magnifying glass or simple microscope: location of image and magnification from ray diagram only [formula and numerical problems not included]. Applications of lenses. 

(iv) Using a triangular prism to produce a visible spectrum from white light; Electromagnetic spectrum. Scattering of light.
Deviation produced by a triangular prism; dependence on colour (wavelength) of light; dispersion and spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum: broad classification (names only arranged in order of increasing wavelength); properties common to all electromagnetic radiations; properties and uses of infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Simple application of scattering of light e.g. blue colour of the sky.

3. Sound

(i) Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple numerical problems on echoes. Production of echoes, condition for formation of echoes; simple numerical problems; use of echoes by bats, dolphins, fishermen, medical field. SONAR.
(ii) Natural vibrations, Damped vibrations, Forced vibrations and Resonance – a special case of forced vibrations.
Meaning and simple applications of natural, damped, forced vibrations and resonance. (iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound: Characteristics of sound: loudness and intensity; subjective and objective nature of these properties; sound level in decibel(dB)(as unit only); noise pollution; interdependence of: pitch and frequency; quality and waveforms (with examples).

4. Electricity and Magnetism

(i) Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
Concepts of pd (V), current (I), resistance (R) and charge (Q). Ohm’s law: statement, V=IR; SI units; experimental verification; graph of V vs I and resistance from slope; ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, factors affecting resistance (including specific resistance) and internal resistance; super conductors, electromotive force (emf); combination of resistances in series and parallel and derivation of expressions for equivalent resistance. Simple numerical problems using the above relations. [Simple network of resistors].
(ii) Electrical power and energy.
Electrical energy; examples of heater, motor, lamp, loudspeaker, etc. Electrical power; measurement of electrical energy, W = QV = VIt from the definition of pd. Combining with ohm’s law W = VIt = I2 Rt = (V2/R)t and electrical power P = (W/t) = VI = I2R = V2/R. Units: SI and commercial; Power rating of common appliances, household consumption of electric energy; calculation of total energy consumed by electrical appliances; W = Pt (kilowatt × hour = kW h), [simple numerical problems].
(iii) Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires.
House wiring (ring system), power distribution; main circuit (3 wires-live, neutral, earth) with fuse / MCB, main switch and its advantages – circuit diagram; two-way switch, staircase wiring, need for earthing, fuse, 3-pin plug and socket; Conventional location of live, neutral and earth points in 3 pin plugs and sockets. Safety precautions, colour coding of wires.

(iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not required); electromagnetic induction (elementary); transformer.
Oersted’s experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current; magnetic field (B) and field lines due to current in a straight wire (qualitative only), right hand thumb rule –magnetic field due to a current in a loop; Electromagnets: their uses; comparisons with a permanent magnet; Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, the DC electric motor- simple sketch of main parts (coil, magnet, split ring commutators and brushes); brief description and type of energy transfer(working not required): Simple introduction to electromagnetic induction; frequency of AC in house hold supplies , Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, AC Generator – Simple sketch of main parts, brief description and type of energy transfer(working not required). Advantage of AC over DC. Transformer- its types, characteristics of primary and secondary coils in each type (simple labelled diagram and its uses).

5. Heat

(i) Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; principle of method of mixtures; Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures. Heat and its units (calorie, joule), temperature and its units (oC,, K); thermal (heat) capacity C’ = Q/T… (SI unit of C’): Specific heat Capacity C = Q/mT (SI unit of
C) Mutual relation between Heat Capacity and Specific Heat capacity, values of C for some common substances (ice, water and copper). Principle of method of mixtures including mathematical statement. Natural phenomenon involving specific heat. Consequences of high specific heat of water.[Simple numerical problems].
(ii) Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of state for fusion only.
Change of phase (state); heating curve for water; latent heat; specific latent heat of fusion (SI unit). Simple numerical problems. Common physical phenomena involving latent heat of fusion.

6. Modern Physics

(i) Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions. Brief introduction (qualitative only) of the nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A). Radioactivity as spontaneous disintegration. α, β and γ – their nature and properties; changes within the nucleus. One example each of α and β decay with equations showing changes in Z and A. Uses of radioactivity – radio isotopes. Harmful effects. Safety precautions. Background radiation.
Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants and other sources.
Nuclear Energy: working on safe disposal of waste. Safety measures to be strictly reinforced.
(ii) Nuclear fission and fusion; basic introduction and equations.

Chemistry Syllabus


  • Chapter 1 – Periodic Table, Periodic Properties and Variations of Properties
  • Chapter 2 – Chemical Bonding
  • Chapter 3 – Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Chapter 4 – Analytical Chemistry: Uses Of Ammonium Hydroxide And Sodium Hydroxide
  • Chapter 5 – Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Chapter 6 – Electrolysis
  • Chapter 7 – Metallurgy
  • Chapter 8 – Study of Compounds: Hydrogen Chloride
  • Chapter 9 – Study of Compounds: Ammonia
  • Chapter 10 – Nitric Acid
  • Chapter 11 – Sulphuric Acid
  • Chapter 12 – Organic Chemistry

Detailed Syllabus and Instructions for examination:

There will be one paper of two hours duration of 80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work carrying 20 marks.
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer questions on the entire syllabus.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will be required to answer any four of these six questions.
Note: All chemical process/reactions should be studied with reference to the reactants, products, conditions, observation, the (balanced) equations and diagrams.

1. Periodic Properties and variations of Properties – Physical and Chemical

(i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.
Definitions and trends of the following periodic properties in groups and periods should be studied:
• atomic size
• metallic character
• non-metallic character
• ionisation potential
• electron affinity
• electronegativity
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
• The study of modern periodic table up to period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon);
• Periodicity and other related properties to be explained on the basis of nuclear charge and shells (not orbitals).

(Special reference to the alkali metals and halogen groups).

2. Chemical Bonding

Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds, Electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent bonding:
• Electron dot structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO.
• Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
(b) Covalent Bonding:
• Electron dot structure of covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.
• Polar Covalent compounds – based on difference in electronegativity: Examples – HCl and H2O including structures.
• Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution. Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding:
• Definition
• The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and NH4+ ion.

The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with the help of electron dot diagrams.

3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts

(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules and their characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
• Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids, bases and salts.
• Acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue.
• Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal. (To be explained with suitable examples).
• Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator.
(iii) Definition of salt; types of salts.
Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
(iv) Action of dilute acids on salts. Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, sulphites and sulphides by appropriate acids with heating if necessary.(Relevant laboratory work must be done).
(v) Methods of preparation of Normal salts with relevant equations. (Details of apparatus or procedures not required).
Methods included are:
• Direct combination
• Displacement
• Precipitation (double decomposition)
• Neutralization of insoluble base
• Neutralisation of an alkali (titration)
• Action of dilute acids on carbonates and bi-carbonates.

4. Analytical Chemistry

(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On solution of salts:

• Colour of salt and its solution.
• Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
• Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
• Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.

(ii) Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on certain metals, their oxides and hydroxides.
The metals must include aluminium, zinc and lead, their oxides and hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of these substances.

5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry

(i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes; Avogadro’s Law.

• Idea of mole – a number just as a dozen, a gross (Avogadro’s number).

• Avogadro’s Law – statement and explanation.
• Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes.
– Statement and explanation.
• Understanding molar volume- “the mass of 22.4 litres of any gas at S.T.P. is equal to its molar mass”. (Questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding).
• Simple calculations based on the molar volume and Gay Lussac’s law.

(ii) Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required). The explanation can be given using equations for the formation of HCl, NH3, and NO.
(iii) Vapour Density and its relation to relative molecular mass:
• Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required)
• Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from:
(a) the percentage composition of a compound.
(b) the masses of combining elements.
(iv) Mole and its relation to mass.
• Relating mole and atomic mass; arriving at gram atomic mass and then gram atom; atomic mass is a number dealing with one atom; gram atomic mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.
• Relating mole and molecular mass arriving at gram molecular mass and gram molecule – molecular mass is a number dealing with a molecule, gram molecular mass is the mass of one mole of molecules.
• Simple calculations based on relation of mole to mass, volume and Avogadro’s number.
(v) Simple calculations based on chemical equations
Related to weight and/or volumes of both reactants and products.

6. Electrolysis

(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
• Substances containing molecules only ions only, both molecules and ions.
• Examples; relating their composition with their behaviour as strong and weak electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.

(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion, cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv) An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions (reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis of:
• Molten lead bromide
• acidified water with platinum electrodes
• Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with copper electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes.

The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory, wherever applicable.

(v) Applications of electrolysis.
• Electroplating with nickel and silver, choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
• Electro refining of copper.

Reasons and conditions for electroplating; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.

7. Metallurgy

(i) Occurrence of metals in nature:
• Mineral and ore – Meaning only.
• Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc.
(ii) Stages involved in the extraction of metals.
(a) Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic method, magnetic separation, froth flotation method.
(b) Conversion of concentrated ore to its oxide- roasting and calcination (definition, examples with equations).
(c) Reduction of metallic oxides- some can be reduced by hydrogen, carbon and carbon monoxide (e.g. copper oxide, lead (II) oxide, iron (III) oxide and zinc oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Al2O3, MgO) – refer to activity series). Active metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium, potassium and calcium. (reference only).
Equations with conditions should be given.

(d) Electro refining – reference only.

(iii) Extraction of Aluminium.
(a) Chemical method for purifying bauxite by using NaOH – Baeyer’s Process.
(b) Electrolytic extraction – Hall Heroult’s process:
Structure of electrolytic cell – the various components as part of the electrolyte, electrodes and electrode reactions.
Description of the changes occurring, purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations.
(iv) Alloys – composition and uses.
Stainless steel, duralumin, brass, bronze, fuse metal / solder.

8. Study of Compounds

A. Hydrogen Chloride

Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
• Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification.
• Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air.
• Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference.

• Method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water- the special arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
• Reaction with ammonia
• Acidic properties of its solution – reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites.
• Precipitation reactions with silver nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.

B. Ammonia

Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen; uses of ammonia.
• Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; (the preparation to be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification)
• Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN using warm water.
Ammonia from ammonium salts using alkalies.

The reactions to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions and equations.

• Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
• Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment).
• The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
• The catalytic oxidation of ammonia (with conditions and reaction)
• Its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine (both chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess).

All these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations and observations.

• Aqueous solution of ammonia – reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
• Uses of ammonia – manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non-ozone depleting), and cleansing agents.

C. Nitric Acid

Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent.
• Laboratory preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations, setting up of apparatus, diagram, precautions, collection and identification.
• Manufacture of Nitric acid by Ostwald’s process (Only equations with conditions where applicable).
• As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.

D. Sulphuric Acid

Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated – oxidation of carbon and sulphur; as a dehydrating agent – dehydration of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.

Manufacture by Contact Process Equations with conditions where applicable).

Its behaviour as an acid when dilute -reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide.

• Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent – the oxidation of carbon and sulphur.
• Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
• Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid -reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.

9. Organic Chemistry

(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
• Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation.
• Formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain, cyclic compounds (only benzene).
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
• Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds.
• Structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes up to 5 carbon atoms.
• Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
(iii) Homologous series – characteristics with examples.
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with only one functional group).
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
• Alkanes – general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane – methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Complete combustion of methane and ethane, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.

• Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.
• Alkynes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide).

Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes and alkynes.

Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne.

(vi) Alcohols: ethanol – preparation, properties and uses.
• Preparation of ethanol by hydrolysis of alkyl halide.
• Properties – Physical: Nature, Solubility, Density, Boiling Points. Chemical: Combustion, action with sodium, ester formation with acetic acid, dehydration with conc. Sulphuric acid to prepare ethene.
• Denatured and spurious alcohol.
• Important uses of Ethanol.
(vii) Carboxylic acids (aliphatic – mono carboxylic acid): Acetic acid – properties and uses of acetic acid.
• Structure of acetic acid.
• Properties of Acetic Acid: Physical properties – odour (vinegar), glacial acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce ice like crystals). Chemical properties –action with litmus, alkalis and alcohol (idea of esterification).
• Uses of acetic acid.

Mathematics Syllabus


  • Chapter 1 – GST
  • Chapter 2 – Banking (Recurring Deposit Account)
  • Chapter 3 – Shares and Dividend
  • Chapter 4 – Linear Inequations (In one variable)
  • Chapter 5 – Quadratic Equations
  • Chapter 6 – Solving (simple) Problems (Based on Quadratic Equations)
  • Chapter 7 – Ratio and Proportion (Including Properties and Uses)
  • Chapter 8 – Remainder and Factor Theorems
  • Chapter 9 – Matrices
  • Chapter 10 – Arithmetic Progression
  • Chapter 11 – Geometric Progression
  • Chapter 12 – Reflection
  • Chapter 13 – Section and Mid-Point Formula
  • Chapter 14 – Equation of a Line
  • Chapter 15 – Similarity (With Applications to Maps and Models)
  • Chapter 16 – Loci (Locus and Its Constructions)
  • Chapter 17 – Circles
  • Chapter 18 – Tangents and Intersecting Chords
  • Chapter 19 – Constructions (Circles)
  • Chapter 20 – Cylinder, Cone and Sphere
  • Chapter 21 – Trigonometrical Identities
  • Chapter 22 – Heights and Distances
  • Chapter 23 – Graphical Representation

Detailed Syllabus and Instructions for examination:

Biology Syllabus


  • Chapter 2 – Structure Of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle And Division
  • Chapter 3 – Genetics – Some Basic Fundamentals
  • Chapter 4 – Absorption By Roots -The Process Involved
  • Chapter 5 – Transpiration
  • Chapter 6 – Photosynthesis – Provider Of Food For All
  • Chapter 7 – The Circulatory System
  • Chapter 8 – The Excretory System (Elimination Of Body Wastes)
  • Chapter 9 – The Nervous System
  • Chapter 10 – Endocrine Glands – The Producers of Chemical Messengers
  • Chapter 11 – The Reproductive System
  • Chapter 12 – Population – The Increasing Numbers and Rising Problems

Detailed Syllabus and Instructions for examination:

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